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March 22, 2015

Andhra Pradesh Forests, Region wise, District wise forests in Andhra Pradesh

FORESTS IN ANDHRA PRADESH

According to the estimates of National Remote Sensing Agency (N.R.S.A) there is a forest area of 40,435 Square Kilometers in our state. This constitutes 14.61 % of total area of state. As per the National Policy, forests should constitute 33.3% of the total geographical area. Our state stands 15th place in India in respect of the area occupied by forests. In Andhra Pradesh, forests occupy mountainous areas to a large extent. Forests are confined to Seshachalam hills, Palakondalu and Nallamala hills from Tirupathi in the South to Simhachalam in the North, and in the West they extend upto Balaghat mountains. Nallamala forests are the biggest forests in Andhra Pradesh. The hills and their surrounding areas in Telangana region are covered with thick forests.

Region wise of the total forest area in Andhra Pradesh, Coastal Andhra constitutes 30.67%, Rayalaseema 23.53% and Telangana 45.80%. District wise the highest forest area is found in Khammam and the lowest in Krishna district. Forests are also found mostly in Adilabad, Cuddapah, Chittoor, Warangal, East Godavari, Visakhapatnam, Kurnool and Karimnagar Districts.

Types of Forests

Distribution of forest chiefly depends on the rainfall distribution. Forests in Andhra Pradesh mainly come under deciduous type of forests. This type of forest grows in the areas where rainfall ranges from 75 Cms. to 200 Cms. In areas with less than 75 Cms. of rainfall, forests with short thorny trees exist. This type of forest is called Scrub Forest. There are tidal forests also along the seacoasts. The chief varieties of trees that are grown in the forests of our state are Hardvickia, Agisa, Adina, Jittegi, Gallnut, Manilkara, Billu, Teak, Velama, Somania, Saman, Margosa, Butea, Redsanders, Tamba, Bamboo etc., The important varieties grown in scrub forests are Acacia, Sundra, Bhir, Canthium, etc.,

Forest Produce

Timber, Fire-wood, Bamboo, Beedi, Leaves, Tamarind, Soap nuts, Lac, Honey medicinal herbs, Tanning material (cassia), Terminalia and a variety of fruits and roots are available in forests.

Russa grass which grows in the forests of Nizamabad is used in the manufacture of scented oils. Bassia flowers and Beedi leaves are available in the forest of Telangana region (State). The Red Sanders grows nowhere in India except in the forest of Cuddapah, Chittoor and Nellore districts of Andhra Pradesh. The wood of the red sanders, which is used in the manufacture of paints, musical instruments and toys, is exported to other countries. The most valuable sand wood trees are grown in the forests of Chittoor and Anantapur districts.

Wild Animals

In the forests of Andhra Pradesh, there are many animals like varieties of insects and flies, birds, snakes, stags, porcupines, bison's, deer, tigers, leopards, sambar deers, cheetahs, antelopes, mongooses, foxes, bears, monkeys, etc.,

March 21, 2015

The books of Indian writers and their names list, Books by Indian Authors

Books by Indian Authors

Indian has produced several great writers who have influenced a whole generation and continue to inspire the coming generations by their writings.
S.No
Books
Authors
Belongs to (DOB-DOD)
1Maha BharatamNannaya, Tikkana, Errana10th Century, 1205-1288, 14th Century
2Kumara SambhavamNanne Choda12th Century
3Vrishadhipa SatakamPalkurki Somanatha12th (or) 13th Century
4Basava PuranamPalkurki Somanatha12th (or) 13th Century
5Panditaradhya CharitraPalkurki Somanatha12th (or) 13th Century
6Pratapa RudriyamVaidyanatha14th (or) 15th Century
7Madhura VijayamGanga Devi14th Century
8Jaina BharatamSalvudu
9Palnati Veera CharitraSrinadha15th Century
10Hara VilasamSrinadha15th Century
11Srinagara NaishadhaSrinadha15th Century
12Bhima KhandamSrinadha15th Century
13Nirvachanottara RamayanamTikkana1205-1288
14Andhra Bhasha BhushanamKethana
15Siva Katha SaaramMallikarjuna Panditulu
16HarivamsamErrana14th Century
17Narasimha PuranamErrana14th Century
18RamayanamMolla1440-1530
19ManucharitraAllasani Peddana15th and 16th Centuries
20ParijataapaharanamNandi Timmana15th and 16th Centuries
21Vasu CharitraRamaraja BhushanaMid 16th Century
22Kalapurnodayam Prabhavathi PradyumnamPingali Suranna16th Century
23Panduranga MahatyamTenali Ramakrishna (Garalapati Ramakrishna)16th Century
24AmuktamalyadaSri Krishna Devaraya1509-1529
25Madalasa CharitraSri Krishna Devaraya1509-1529
26Maha BhagavatamBammera Potana1450-1510
27Virabhadra VijayamBammera Potana1450-1510
28Bhogini DandakamBammera Potana1450-1510
29Kalahasthiswara MahatyamDhurjati15th and 16th Centuries
30Yayati CharitraPonneganti Telaganarya
31Tapati SamvaranopakhyanamGangadharakavi
32Dasaradhi SatakamKancherla Gopanna1620-1680
33Rajasekhara CharitraKandukuri Veeresalingam1848-1919
34Sakuntala ParinayamPillalamarri Pina Veerabhadrudu
35Jaimini BharatamPillalamarri Pina Veerabhadrudu
36Varadambika ParinayamTirumalamba1335-1565 AD
37Sumathi SatakamBaddena1220-1280
38Kaatantra VyakaranamSarva Varma
39Nritya RatnavaliJayapa Senani
40Buddha CharitraTirupathi Venkata Kavulu (Divakarla Tirupati Sastry, Chellapilla Venkata Sastry)1872-1919, 1870-1950
41Ranganadha RamayanamGona Buddha Reddy
42Bhaskara RamayanamHulakki Bhasarudu
43Vikramarka charitaJakkana15th Century
44Bhojarajiyam-chhando darpanamAnantamatyudu1430 AD
45HarischandropakhyanamGauranna
46RamabhyudayamAyyalaraju Ramabhadrudu16th Century
47Vemana SatakamVemana~ 15th, 16th, 17th Centuries (1652)
48Vijaya VilasamChemakuri Venkata Kavi17th Century
49Sarangadhra CharitraChemakuri Venkata Kavi17th Century
50Radhika SwantvanamMuddu Palani~1750's
51Subhadra KalyanamTallapaka Timmakka15th Century
52Sugriva VijayamKandukuri Rudra Kavi
53Shatchakravarti CharitramMallareddy
54Mutyala SaraluGurazada Apparao1862-1915
55Kanya SulkamGurazada Apparao1862-1915
56PurnammaGurazada Apparao1862-1915
57Desa BhaktiGurazada Apparao1862-1915
58AndhravaliRayaprolo Subba Rao1892-1984
59TrinakankanamRayaprolo Subba Rao1892-1984
60LalitaRayaprolo Subba Rao1892-1984
61GabilamGurram Jashuva1895-1971
62KinnerasaniViswanatha Satyanarayana1895-1976
63EkaviraViswanatha Satyanarayana1895-1976
64Ramayana KalpavrikshamViswanatha Satyanarayana1895-1976
65Veyi PadagaluViswanatha Satyanarayana1895-1976
66Cheliyali KattaViswanatha Satyanarayana1895-1976
67JebudongaViswanatha Satyanarayana1895-1976
68Krishna PakshamDevulapalli Krishan Sastri1897-1980
69UrvasiDevulapalli Krishan Sastri1897-1980
70PravasamDevulapalli Krishan Sastri1897-1980
71Sivaji CharitraKomaraju Lakshmana Rao1877-1923
72PrabhavaSri Sri1910-1983
73Maha PrasthanamSri Sri1910-1983
74Maro PrasthanamSri Sri1910-1983
75TwamevahamArudra1925-1998
76Siva BharatamGadiyaram Venkat Sesha Sastri1894
77Rana Pratapa Simha CharitraRajasekhara Satavadhani
78Andhrula Sanghika CharitraSuravaram Pratapa Reddy1896-1953
79Pandita Raja PanchamrutamBurgula Ramakrishna Rao
80Krishna SatakamBurgula Ramakrishna Rao
81Telanganalo AndhrodyamMadapati Hanumanta Rao1885-1970
82Vira TelanganaRavi Narayana Reddy1908-1991
83SivatandavamPuttaparti Narayana Charyulu1914-1990
84VisvambharaDr. C Narayana Reddy1931
85Mantalo ManavuduDr. C Narayana Reddy1931
86Divvela MuvvaluDr. C Narayana Reddy1931
87RamappaDr. C Narayana Reddy1931
88Karpura Vasanta RayaluDr. C Narayana Reddy1931
89Nagarjuna SagaramDr. C Narayana Reddy1931
90Ajanta SundariDr. C Narayana Reddy1931
91AgnidharaDasaradhi1925-1987
92RudraveenaDasaradhi1925-1987
93Agni VeenaAnisetti1922-1979
94Bhuvana GhoshaK V Ramana Reddy
95VajrayudhamSoma Sundar1931
96EnkipataluNanduri Subba Rao1895-1957
97KrishivaluduDuvvuri Rami Reddy1895-1947
98ParasalaDuvvuri Rami Reddy1895-1947
99Palanati BharatamEtukuri Venkata Narasayya
100Vishadha SarangadharaDharmavaram Krishnamacharya
101HemalathaChilakamarthi Lakshmi Narasimham1867-1946
102GayopakhyanamChilakamarthi Lakshmi Narasimham1867-1946
103Prasanna YadavamChilakamarthi Lakshmi Narasimham1867-1946
104Pandavodyoga VijayaluTirupathi Venkata Kavulu (Divakarla Tirupati Sastry, Chellapilla Venkata Sastry)1872-1919, 1870-1950
105Paduka Pattabhi Shekam - SakshiPanuganti Lakshmi Narasimha Rao1865-1940
106PrataparudriyamVedam Venkataraya Sastri1853-1929
107Mala PalliUnnava Lakshmi Narayana1877-1958
108VarakatnamMunimanikyam Narasimha Rao1898-1973
109Katnam KathaluMunimanikyam Narasimha Rao1898-1973
110GalivanaPalagummi Padmaraju1915-1983
111Kumpatilo KusumamMadhurantakam Rajaram1930-1999
112Chivaraku MigilediButchi Babu1916-1967
113Adavigachina VennalaButchi Babu1916-1967
114Asamarthuni JivayatraGopi Chand1910-1962
115Rattalu - RambabuRachakonda Viswanadha Sastri1922-1993
116SavitriChalam1894-1979
117SthriChalam1894-1979
118MaidanamChalam1894-1979
119Killu BommalauG V Krishna Rao
120Maa BhumiSunkara Satyanarayana
121Congress CharitraBhogaraju Pattabhi Sita Ramayya1880-1959

March 20, 2015

Floods and Droughts in Andhra Pradesh, Regions affected by floods in Andhra Pradesh

FLOODS AND DROUGHTS

FLOODS

When more rainfall occurs than the optimum rainfall, it is called over-rainfall. Rivers may be flooded due to over-rainfall. Rainfall below the optimum level is referred to under-rainfall. Under-rainfall, some times leads to drought. Drought is otherwise known as famine.

In Andhra Pradesh large and small rivers, streams, stream-lets, and tanks experience floods and surrounding areas inundate due to over-rainfall caused by monsoons, cyclones and depressions. Coastal areas are frequently affected by over-rainfall.

The following regions are frequently affected by floods in Andhra Pradesh:
The deltaic areas of the Krishna and Godavari rivers, Kolleru lake area, Vamsadhara and Sarada river basins, Budameru, Tammileru and basins of some of the rivers and streams of Chittoor and Nellore districts.

Low lying areas are inundated by floods. Agricultural lands and crops are damaged. Villages and towns may be drowned. Roads and railways, power and telephone lines may be interrupted. Heavy losses of wealth and human lives are caused. Crops are damaged not only in low-lying areas but also in upland areas where floods occur to some stream-lets in upland areas. The Government is taking all necessary steps to protect agricultural lands, villages and towns from the danger of floods.

DROUGHTS

Lack of rain in the prime reason for drought. In Andhra Pradesh drought occurs frequently in Rayalaseema. where rainfall is merge. In Andhra Pradesh, the Government declared the following areas in 11 districts as drought areas:
  1. Anantapur, Tadipatri, Dharmavaram, Kalyanadurgam, Penukonda, Madakasira, Hindupur, Kadiri, Gooty and Uravakonda areas of Anantapur district.
  2. Chittoor, Chandragiri, Madanapalle, Vayala-padu, Punganuru, Palamaneru, Kuppam, Punur and Satyaveedu areas of Chittoor district.
  3. Cuddapah, Kamalapuram, Rayachoti, Rajampet, Badwel, Jammalamadugu, Prodhutur and Pulivendula areas of Cuddapah district.
  4. Kurnool, Dronachalam, Nandikotkur, Adoni, Alur, Pattikonda, Koilkuntla, Banaganapalle, Allagadda, Atmakur and Nandyala areas of Kurnool district.
  5. Ongole, Darsi, Podili, Kanigiri, Kandukur, Giddalur, Markapuram and Addanki areas of Prakasam district.
  6. Udayagiri, Atmakur, and Kavali areas of Nellore district.
  7. Sattenapalli, Vinukonda and Palnad areas of Guntur district.
  8. Kalwakurthy, Nagarkurnool, Vanaparthi, Makthal, Shadnagar, Alampur, Achampet, Kollapur, Gudwal and Atmakur areas of Mahaboobnagar district.
  9. Suryapet, Bhuvanagiri, Miryalaguda, Huzurnagar, Ramannapet, Devarakonda and Nalgonda areas of Nalgonda district.
  10. Janagam area of Warangal district.
  11. Narayankhed area of Medak district.

March 17, 2015

Climatic Conditions of Andhra Pradesh, Monsoons based climate of Andhra Pradesh

CLIMATE CONDITIONS OF ANDHRA PRADESH

Andhra Pradesh is situated in tropical zone from the point of view of its latitudinal location. The climate of our state depends on monsoons. So, the climate of Andhra Pradesh is called Tropical Monsoon type of climate. In Andhra Pradesh, an year can be divided into four (4) seasons. They are
  • Winter Season - January to February
  • Summer Season - March to Mid June
  • Rainy Season - Mid June to September and (South-west monsoon)
  • North-east monsoon season (October to December)
Winter Season

Weather becomes cold from December and continues to be cold till the end of February. The districts of Anantapur, Chittoor, Hyderabad and Nizamabad are cooler than other districts. It is relatively cooler in plateau regions of Rayalaseema and Telangana, when compared to the coastal region. Snow fall occurs during nights.

Summer Season

Summer season generally extends from March to the first week of June. Temperature gradually increases from March and the highest temperature is recorded all over the state in the third week of May. The average temperature in summer is 27.1 degrees centigrade. Highest average temperature of 34.5 degrees centigrade is recorded in Ramagundam. Heat waves blow all over the state in the second and third weeks of May. But Chittoor and Anantapur districts which are adjacent to Mysore plateau are cooler than other regions. Horsely Hills in Chittoor district act as summer resorts. The weather at Hyderabad in summer is cooler as it is situated at a higher elevation. A difference in climate is found between coastal and plateau regions. Though it is extremely hot during day time in Rayalaseema and Telangana, it pleasantly cools down during nights. Coastal areas experience moderate temperatures due to the nearness of the sea.

Rainy Season (South-west Monsoon)

In Andhra Pradesh rainy season commences with the arrival of South-west monsoons in the second week of June and they spread allover the state by the end of June. About 800 mm of rainfall in Northern region and 400 mm in Southern region of Andhra Pradesh occur during South-west monsoon region. When compared to other regions, Telangana receives the highest amount of rainfall.

North-east Monsoon Season

South-west monsoon will start retreating in the month of October and at the same time North-east monsoon sets in North-east monsoon also gives rainfall. Southern parts of Andhra Pradesh receive more rainfall than Northern parts. Depressions are formed over the Bay of Bengal during this season and South coastal districts receive more rain. Generally South coastal districts incur heavy losses whenever these cyclones lash the coast.

March 13, 2015

Rivers of Andhra Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh Rivers Godavari, Krishna, Tungabhadra, Penna and Manjeera

RIVERS OF ANDHRA PRADESH

There are many rivers in Andhra Pradesh. As the land is high in North-West and slopes towards South-East, all the rivers flow Eastwards and join Bay of Bengal. All the rivers are rain-fed. The important rivers in Andhra Pradesh are 
  • Godavari
  • Krishna
  • Tungabhadra
  • Penna
  • Manjeera.
GODAVARI RIVER

The river Godavari is the longest among all the rivers of South India. This river, which is 1584 Kilometers long originates in Western Ghats at Triyambak near Nasik in Maharashtra. It enters Andhra Pradesh near Basar in Adilabad District. It flows to a length of about 770 Kilometers in Andhra Pradesh. Some of the important tributaries of Godavari are Manjeera, Pranhita, Indravati, Kinnerasani, Sabari, Sileru e.t.c., An Anicut is built over this river at Dowleiswaram near Rajahmundry. At the lower reaches near Rajahmundry, Godavari divides into three major distributories called Gouthami, Vasishta and Vainateya and finally reaches Bay of Bengal after forming a delta.

KRISHNA RIVER

Originating in the Western Ghats near Mahabaleswar in Maharashtra, the river Krishna flows Eastwards and enters Andhra Pradesh at Thangadi in Mahaboobnagar District. After joining with its tributary Tungabhadra, at Sangam in Kurnool district, it flows across Srisailam, and Vijayawada and reaches Bay of Bengal near Hamsaladeevi. Its total length is 1440 Kilometers. The length of Krishna river in Andhra Pradesh is about 720 Kilometers. Prakasam Barrage was constructed on the Krishna river at Vijayawada, and a road was laid over it. At a distance of 64 Kilometers, from Vijayawada, the river Krishna divides into two distributories and again merge into one. The area in between these two distributories is called "Diviseema". Nagarjuna Sagar Dam was built across the river Krishna at Nandikonda. This Dam is one of the biggest dams in India. One more dam was constructed at Srisailam. Hydro-Electricity is also being generated from waters of the reservoirs of these dams. The important tributaries of the river Krishna are Tungabhadra, Dindi, Palem, Koyana, Varna, Panchagana, Musi, Bheema, Ghantaprabha, Munneru, etc.

TUNGABHADRA RIVER

This river is a coalition of twin tributaries of Tunga and Bhadra which originate in Varaha hills in Western Ghats in Karnataka. Tungabhadra joins Krishna river in Kurnool district. It is the longest of all tributaries of Krishna river. A dam was constructed across Tungabhadra at Hospet in Karnataka for irrigation purpose and for generation of Hydel power.

PENNA RIVER

It originates in Nandi Durga hills in Karnataka. It enters Andhra Pradesh in Anantapur district and joins Bay of Bengal at Vutukur in Nellore district after flowing through Cuddapah and Nellore districts. Jayamangali, Sagileru, Papaghni, Chitravati, Cheyyeru are the tributaries of Penna river. Somasila project was built across this river.

MANJEERA RIVER

This originates in Maharashtra in the Balaghat hills. It passes through Medak district in Andhra Pradesh and joins Godavari. It is important among the tributaries in Godavari. Nizamsagar project is constructed across this tributary.

March 08, 2015

Physical regions and rivers of Andhra Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh Rivers and Regions

PHYSICAL REGIONS OF ANDHRA PRADESH

Basing on Physical, Social and economic conditions, Andhra Pradesh can be divided into three Physical regions. They are
  1. Coastal Plains
  2. Eastern Ghats
  3. Western Plateau
Physical Regions
  • Coastal Plains
    • Coastal plain stretches from the eastern ghats to the Bay of Bengal. To a large extent this plain was formed with alluvium brought by rivers. It extends over a length of about 972 kilometers from Mahendragiri in the North to the Pulicot lake in the South. This plain is narrow in the North and South, but at the central part it bulges out to a width of about 160 kms, because of the formation of the deltas by Krishna and Godavari rivers. Deltas are very fertile as they are formed with rich alluvium.
    • There is a depression called Kolleru lake between the two deltas of Krishna and Godavari rivers. This is a fresh water lake. Its area is 250 square kilometers.
    • In between Nellore district and the State of Tamilnadu, sea water penetrated into this coastal plain and formed Pulicot lake. It extends over an area of 460 square kilometers, of which major portion is in Andhra Pradesh. This is a salt water lake. It is largest lake in Andhra Pradesh.
  • Eastern Ghats
    • Eastern Ghats exist in between coastal plain and western plateau. Eastern Ghats are a series of hills with broken hills locally. They extend over a length of about 70 Kms, in the North with a height of 1200 meters at many places. These hills are composed of Charnockites and Khondalite rocks. Araku valley in Visakhapatnam district and Papikondalu in East and West Godavari districts are important hills here.
    • The Eastern Ghats are less massive to the south of the Krishna river and they occur in two ridges. The outer ridge is composed of the Nallamala and Velikonda ranges, and inner ridge is composed of Erramala, Seshachalam and Palakonda ranges. The heights of these hill varies from 700 meters to 1105 meters. Seshachalam hills are otherwise known as Tirupathi hills. Mahendragiri is the highest peak in the Eastern Gahts.
  • Western Plateau
    • It is an ancient plateau made of rocks of Archean origin. Telangana State and Ananthapur and Kurnool districts of Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh are in this plateau. The height of the plateau ranges from 150 meters to 750 meters. There are Gondwana rocks in Godavari basin in the northern part of the plateau. Coal is found in the Gondwana rocks.

March 04, 2015

Andhra Pradesh Geography detailed infromation

ANDHRA PRADESH OVERALL GEOGRAPHY

The state of Andhra was formed with Kurnool as its capital on 1st Oct, 1953 as a result of the fast unto death of Sri Potti Sreeramulu. But Andhra Pradesh was formed on 1st Nov, 1956 comprising the then Andhra State and Telangana (Telugu speaking region) of the former State of Hyderabad is the capital of Andhra Pradesh. It is situated in the South-East of India. It's area is 275,068 Sq. Kms. Andhra Pradesh occupies fourth place in area among the states of India. The other big states in area in order are Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra.

Andhra Pradesh is in the Indian Peninsula. To the North of Andhra Pradesh there are States of Chattisgarh and Orissa, Tamilnadu is on the South, Maharashtra is on the North-West, Karnataka on the West and Bay of Bengal on the East. Andhra Pradesh has a long coastal line of 972 Kilometers. There are 23 Districts in Andhra Pradesh. Anantapur District is the biggest in area and Hyderabad District is the smallest.

Basing on physical, social and economical conditions, Andhra Pradesh can be divided into 3 regions. They are:
  • Coastal Andhra
  • Rayalaseema
  • Telangana
In the above stated three regions Telangana is divided as a separate State.

Coastal Andhra

There are 9 districts on coastal Andhra. They are Srikakulam, Vijayanagaram, Visakhapatnam, East Godavari, Krishna, Guntur, Prakasam and Nellore. The area of Coastal Andhra region is 92,900 square kilometers. This region has the fertile deltas of the rivers, Godavari, Krishna and Penna. A major portion of food commercial crops that are grown in Andhra Pradesh are from this region. Hence the coastal Andhra region is known as "Granary of South India". As this region is agriculturally well developed, it is equally well developed in trade and transport sectors. Hence the highest concentration of population is found in this region. There are many industries based on agricultural produce. Heavy and large scale industries like Steel plant, Caltex Oil, Refinery, Shipbuilding, Bharat Heavy Plates and vessels, Hindustan Zinc, Coromandal Fertilizers etc., are also found here.

Rayalaseema

There are 4 districts in Rayalaseema. They are Chittoor, Cuddapah, Kurnool and Anantapur. Rayalaseema region extends over an area of 67,400 square kilometers. The density of population is very scarce in this region because it is well known for droughts and famines since ancient times. Economically this region is very backward compared to the other two regions. This region comprises of rocky area and infertile soils with very little and unsuitable rainfall. Industrially also this region is very backward.

Telangana

Here we already stated as above Telangana is declared as a separate State. Telangana state comprises of 10 districts. They are Mahaboobnagar, Hyderabad, Ranga Reddy, Medak, Nizamabad, Adilabad, Karimnagar, Warangal, Khammam and Nalagonda districts. This state comprises an area of 114,800 square kilometers. Much of the population living in this region are illiterate and poor. Most of the area is covered with dry and barren land. So, upland crops are grown with the help of available tank water industrially. Telangana is well developed when compared with other two regions. Many industries are located around Hyderabad - Secunderabad. Some parts of this region are gradually developing in agricultural sector also with the introduction of different irrigation schemes.