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February 14, 2015

Indian history about Post Guptan Age [550 - 750] hand notes for Group-I, Group-II and Civil services

Post - Guptan Age [550 - 750]
  • Some important kingdoms in North-India
    • Pushyabhuti - Sthaneswar
    • Maukhari - Kannauj
    • Gouda (Bengal) - Karnasuvarna (Murshidabad)
    • Kamarupa (Assam) - Prag jyotishapura (Gowhati)
    • Maitreka - Vallabhi (Ancient Buddhist University "Vallabhi" founded by Maitrekas)
  • In Deccan, Badami chalukyan kingdom was most important
  • In South, "Pallavas of Kanchi"
  • Great Harshavardhan belongs to Pushyabhuti kingdom
  • Pushyabhuti's of North India
    • Samantas in Guptan period
    • Harshavardhan came into power and the kingdom got independence [606 - 647]
Political Career
  • He conquered Kannauj (Capital), Bengal, Assam, Gujarat, Bihar, Rajastan
  • When he conquered Gujarat, the king was Pulakesin-II of Badami Chalukayans
  • Harshavardhan was defeated by Pulakesin-II and made all agreement that "Narmada" as border
  • This information was known from "Aihole" inscription, which was on the walls of Jain temple.
  • In that inscription "Sakalottara Padeshwara" refers to Harshavardhan sakala whole, Uttara-Uttara (lord of North-India)

February 03, 2015

Indian history about Guptan Age 300 - 550 A.D hand notes for Group-I, Group-II, Group-IV, Jr.Lecturers & Degree Lecturers and Civil services prelims

GUPTA AGE [300 - 550 A.D]
Two capitals
  • Pataliputra
  • Ujjain
Sources
  • Literary
  • Epigraphy [inscriptions]
  • Numismatics [coins]
Literary Sources

S.No
Scholar
Book
Content
1
Kamandaka
Nitasara
Administration
2
Vajjika
Kaumudi Mahotsava
Coronation of Chandra Gupta-I
3
Vishakadatta
Devi Chandra Guptam [Drama]
Story of Chandra Gupta-II & Queen: Dhruva Devi
4
Basa
Swapna Vasavadatta [Drama]
The dream of Vasavadatta
5
Shudraka
Mrichachakatika
Story of Brahman Charadatta who loves Vasantasena
6
Somadeva [kashmiry scholar 11th century A.D]
Kathasarit Sagara
Spread of Indian culture towards South-East Asia
  • Angkorat in kambolia, Vishnu temple [Biggest temple in world] built by Surya Varma in 12th century.
  • Kesaria Stupa is one foot taller than the Borobodur Stupa in Java (Indonesia).

Indian history about Foreign Trade hand notes

INFORMATION ABOUT FOREIGN TRADE
Natural History [72 A.D]: By Pliny, Roman
  • Roman Empire imported luxury products from India and paid 50 Crore gold coins annually.
  • In archaeological excavations thousands of gold coins were found in South-India [Kerala]
Periplus of the Erythearn sea [Greek Book]
    • Greeks called Red sea as Erythearn sea.
    • The author was sailor of Alexandria [Captain of ship]
    • 24 port cities were mentioned.
    • Important port cities
      • Baryagaza [Broch in Gujarat]
      • Tyndis [Calicat]
      • Muziris [Cochin]
      • Poduka [Pondichery]
      • Masolia [Machilipatnam]
      • Gang [Tamralipti - Ancient most post of Bengal]
    • Ancient Roman Trade
      • Arabian sea
      • Red sea
      • Mediterranean sea
      • Meeting city - Alexandria
Factors that influenced the trade
    • Discovery of Monsoons, 46 A.D.
      • Hippalus - Italian Sailor, who discovered the monsoons directions.
      • This discovery was very useful to Trade favorable monsoons - Quick and safe trade.
    • Silk route to India
      • Entire world learned seri culture  from China [13th century]
      • Even today, 70 - 80%  silk from China
      • Chinese trade with Romans was over land.
      • This land trade came to an end in 1st century, because of troubles created by Central Asia.
      • China - Tibet - Sikkim - North eastern states - Deccan Nathula]
      • Indian rulers started collecting taxes
      • Because of silk route, Sathavahanas and Northern East became more prosperous.
      • Recently, Nithula route was reopened.