Pages

June 06, 2015

A brief description of the list of the major important rivers in India

LIST OF THE IMPORTANT RIVERS IN INDIA

The Indian River system is classified as Himalayan, peninsular, coastal, and inland-drainage basin rivers and the important rivers of India are Ganga, Yamuna, Brahmaputra, Indus, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, Narmada and Tapti.

The rivers of India provide irrigation, cheap transportation, electricity, and livelihoods for a large number of people. The river system of India also holds significance from a religious point of view.


Rivers of India play an important role in the lives of the Indians. They provide potable water, cheap transportation, electricity, and the livelihood for a large number of people all over the country. This easily explains why nearly all the major cities of India are located by the banks of rivers. The rivers also have an important role in Hindu Dharma and are considered holy by all Hindus in the country.

Seven major rivers along with their numerous tributaries make up the river system of India. The largest basin system of the rivers pour their waters into the Bay of Bengal. However, some of the rivers whose courses take them through the western part of the country and towards the east of the state of Himachal Pradesh empty into the Arabian Sea. Parts of Ladakh, northern parts of the Aravalli range and the arid parts of the Thar Desert have inland drainage.

All major rivers of India originate from one of the three main watersheds:
  • The Himalaya and the Karakoram ranges
  • Vindhya and Satpura ranges and Chotanagpur plateau in central India
  • Sahyadri or Western Ghats in western India
The rivers is played very important role in providing irrigation water, drinking water, electricity, easy cheap transportation, other miscellaneous works has been done with the help of rivers.

The important rivers of India are Ganga, Yamuna, Brahmaputra, Indus, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, Narmada and Tapti.

A brief description of these rivers is given below

Ganga

Ganga is the most holy river according to Hindu. It has started from the Gangotri in the Himalayas and poured into the Bay of Bengal by traveling of around 2525 km. It is ranked 3rd largest river in the world. There are a number of cities had been developed across the banks of Ganga like Pataliputra, Kashi, Allahabad, Varanasi, Kolkata etc. It had also created the World’s largest delta in West Bengal named as Sundarban delta. The largest river basin of India is the Ganga basin, which receives water from Himalayas in the north and the Vindhyas in the South. The Ganga, the Yamuna, the Ghagra, Gandak and Kosi are the main constituents of this basin. The Ganga and its tributaries such as Son, Yamuna, Budhi Khandak, Gandak, and Sabazpati have been omitted from the list, which originally creates the largest cultivable plains of northern and eastern India, named as the Gangetic plains. The principal river, the sacred Ganga is formed by the union of Andha and Alaknanda. Ganga originates from Gangotri glaciers(Gaumukh - 13,858 ft) in the Himalayan mountain range and gushes from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, and then comes into West Bengal and Bangladesh. It finally finishes in the Bay of Bengal in Bangladesh, where the name of the river is Padma.

Yamuna

Yamuna River had originated from Yamunotri Glacier in the Himalayas, then travels across several states and merged into the Ganga at Triveni, Allahabad. Its total length is 1376 km. Yamuna River’s water contributed nearly 70 percent of Delhi’s water supply. The Taj Mahal is situated on the banks of Yamuna River.

Brahmaputra

Brahmaputra River is originated from Angsi Glacier, the northen Himalayas in Tibet, then entered into the Arunachal Pradesh to Assam and then merges with the Padma river in Bangladesh. Its length is around 2900 km and plays an important role in the irrigation and transportation. It emptied into the Bay of Bengal. The Brahmaputra has the greatest volume of water of all the rivers in India. It is the source of the Indus and the Satluj and flows through Arunachal pradesh and Assam. The Brahmaputra starts off from the Mansarovar lake, which is also the place from where the Sutlej and the Indus have originated. It is somewhat longer than the Indus, however the greater portion of its itinerary is situated outside India. It runs to the east in China, adjacent to the Himalayas, known as Tsang-Po. When it arrives at Namcha Barwa (2900 m), it takes an about turn close to it and moves into India in Arunachal Pradesh and is named as Dihang.

Indus River

The Indus River is a historically famous in Asia. It originated from the Tibetan Plateau, and then flows through the Ladakh then entered into Pakistan and finally merge into the Arabian Sea after traveling a distance of 3180 km.

Mahanadi River

Mahanadi is a major river in the state of Chhattisgarh and Odisha. Mahanadi’s water is used in the irrigation and drinking purpose, it is also called the ruin of Orissa due its devastating floods over the years but till Hirakud Dam was constructed. Its total length is 858 km. The Mahanadi is an important river in the state of Orissa. This river flows slowly for 900 kms and deposits more silt than any other river in the Indian subcontinent.

Godavari

Godavari is the longest river in the southern India and 2nd largest in India after Ganga. It is originated from Maharashtra and flows through Andhra Pradesh, then merges into the Bay of Bengal after traveling a distance of 1465 km.The river Godavari is the longest among all the rivers of South India. This river, which is 1584 Kilometers long originates in Western Ghats at Triyambak near Nasik in Maharashtra. It enters Andhra Pradesh near Basar in Adilabad District. It flows to a length of about 770 Kilometers in Andhra Pradesh. Some of the important tributaries of Godavari are Manjeera, Pranhita, Indravati, Kinnerasani, Sabari, Sileru e.t.c., An Anicut is built over this river at Dowleiswaram near Rajahmundry. At the lower reaches near Rajahmundry, Godavari divides into three major distributories called Gouthami, Vasishta and Vainateya and finally reaches Bay of Bengal after forming a delta. The Godavari River System has second longest course within India. The banks of this river have many pilgrimage sites like Nasik, Triyambak and Bhadrachalam.

Krishna

The 3rd longest river in India after Ganga and Godavari, Krishna River which is originated from Mahabaleswar in Maharashtra and flows through the state of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and finally merges into the Bay of Bengal by traveling a distance of 1400 km.Originating in the Western Ghats near Mahabaleswar in Maharashtra, the river Krishna flows Eastwards and enters Andhra Pradesh at Thangadi in Mahaboobnagar District. After joining with its tributary Tungabhadra, at Sangam in Kurnool district, it flows across Srisailam, and Vijayawada and reaches Bay of Bengal near Hamsaladeevi. Its total length is 1440 Kilometers. The length of Krishna river in Andhra Pradesh is about 720 Kilometers. Prakasam Barrage was constructed on the Krishna river at Vijayawada, and a road was laid over it. At a distance of 64kilometers, from Vijayawada, the river Krishna divides into two distributories and again merge into one. The area in between these two distributories is called "Diviseema". Nagarjuna Sagar Dam was built across the river Krishna at Nandikonda. This Dam is one of the biggest dams in India. One more dam was constructed at Srisailam. Hydro-Electricity is also being generated from waters of the reservoirs of these dams. The important tributaries of the river Krishna are Tungabhadra, Dindi, Palem, Koyana, Varna, Panchagana, Musi, Bheema, Ghantaprabha, Munneru, etc. The Krishna is the third longest river in India with a length of about 1300 kms. It rises in the Western Ghats and flows east into the Bay of Bengal.

Kaveri

The Kaveri River is one of the large rivers in India which is originated from Talakaveri in the Western Ghats of Karnataka and flows through the states of Karnataka,Tamilnadu, finally merges into Bay of Bengal by traveling a distance of 765 km. The source of the Kaveri is located in the Western Ghats. It has many tributaries including Shimsha, Hemavati River, Arkavathy, Kapila, Honnuhole, Lakshmana Tirtha, Kabini, Lokapavani, Bhavani, Noyyal and famous Amaravati. Kaveri is a major source of irrigation in Tamil Nadu.

Narmada

Narmada River is the 5th Longest in the Indian sub-continent. It is also called the Life line of Madhya pradesh due to its huge contributions. Narmada River is originated from Narmada Kund, Amarkantak in Madhya Pradesh and merges into the Arabian Sea near Gujarat after traveling a distance of 1312 km. The Narmada and the Tapti are the only major rivers that flow into the Arabian Sea. The total length of Narmada through the states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra, and Gujarat amounts to 1312 kms. The Tapti follows a parallel course to the south of the Narmada, flowing through the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat on its way into the Gulf of Khambhat.

Tapti

Tapti River is one of the major rivers in Central India. Its total length is around 724 km which flows through the states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra and finally merges into the Gulf of Cambay of Arabian Sea near Gujarat.

April 23, 2015

Andhra Pradesh important projects, Power and Irrigation, Flood Control, Thermal Power, Irrigation, Purpose of the the Projects and Beneficiary States

ANDHRA PRADESH PROJECTS

S.No
NAME OF THE PROJECT
RIVER
PURPOSE
BENEFICIARY STATES
1 Bhakra Nangal Project

The Project consists of :
  • Bhakra Dam (second highest in the world) 518 meters long, 226 meters height
  • Nangal Dam
  • Nangal hydel channels
  • 4 power houses (Biggest in Asia)
Satluj (Hoshiarpur district in Punjab) Power and Irrigation Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan.
2 Damodar Valley Corporation Project (DVC)

The Project consists of :
  • Tilaiya Dam
  • Konar Dam
  • Maithon Dam
  • Panchet Hill Dam
  • Power houses at Bokaro, Durgapur and Chandrapura
Damodar Power, Irrigation, Flood Control. Bihar and West Bengal shared by M.P.
3 Hirakud Dam Project

The main dam is 4800 meters long, 28.9 meters height (World's largest mainstream dam).
Mahanadi Power and Irrigation Orissa
4 Tungabhadra Project Tungabhadra (Tributary of river Krishna) Power and Irrigation Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka
5 Mayurakshi Project Mayura Kshi Power and Irrigation West Bengal
6 Nagarjunasagar Project Krishna Power and Irrigation Andhra Pradesh
7 Gandak River Project Gandak (Tributary of Ganga) Power and Irrigation Bihar, U.P., Nepal (Joint venture of India and Nepal)
8 Kosi Project Kosi Flood Control, Power and irrigation Bihar
9 Farakka Project Ganga, Bhagirathi Power, Irrigation avoid accumulation of silt to improve navigation West Bengal
10 Beas Project Units
  • Beas-Satluj link
  • Beas Dam at Pong
  • Beas transmission system
Beas Irrigation and power Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh
11 Rajasthan Canal Project Satluj in Punjab, Beas and Ravi Irrigation Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana
12 Chambal Project Units
  • Gandhisagar Dam
  • Rana Pratap Sagar Dam
  • Jawahar Sagar Dam
Chambal Power and Irrigation Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan
13 Kakrapara Project Tapti Irrigation Gujarat
14 Nagpur Power Station Koradi Thermal Power Maharashtra
15 Ukai Project Tapti Power and Irrigation Gujarat
16 Tawa Project Tawa (Narmada) Irrigation Madhya Pradesh
17 Pochampad Project Godavari Irrigation Andhra Pradesh
18 Malaprabha Project Malaprabha Irrigation Karnataka
19 Durgapur Project Damodar Irrigation, navigation between Kolkata and Raniganj West Bengal and Bihar
20 Mahi Mahi Irrigation Gujarat
21 Mahanadi Delta Project Mahanadi Irrigation Odisa
22 Idukki Project Periyar Hydro Electricity Kerala
23 Koyna Project Koyan Hydro Electricity Maharastra
24 Upper Krishna Project Krishna Irrigation Karnataka
25 Ramaganga Multipurpose Project Chuisot stream near Kala Power and Irrigation Uttar Pradesh
26 Matatilla Multipurpose Project Betwa Power and Irrigation Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh
27 Tehri Dam Project Bhilangana, Bhagirath Hydro Electricity Uttar Pradesh
28 Narmada Sagar Valley Project Narmada - Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Maharashtra
29 Obra Power Station Obra Thermal Power Uttar Pradesh
30 Rihand Scheme Rihand Hydro Electricity Uttar Pradesh
31 Kundah Project Kundah Hydro Electricity and irrigation Tamil Nadu

April 03, 2015

Tourisim in Andhra Pradesh, APTDC Andhra Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation, List of Tourist places in Andhra Pradesh

TOURIST PLACES IN ANDHRA PRADESH

Andhra Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation - APTDC is a State Government agency which promotes tourism in Andhra Pradesh. Some of the important tourist places in Andhra Pradesh includes, TTD, Srisailam, Charminar at Hyderabad, Husain sagar at Hyderabad, Golkonda Fort, Rishikonda beach at Vizag, Basara, Dharmapuri, Kaleswaram, Vemulawada, Nangnuru, Hanumakonda, Ramappa Temple, Bodhan, Yadagirigutta, Bugga Rameswaram, Bhadrachalam, Medak Church, Charminar, Macca mosque, Pancharamas, Kotappakonda, Mangalagiri, Chejerla, Nagarjuna Konda, Lepakshi, Puttaparthi, Ahobilam, Mahanandi, Mantralayam, Upamaka, Mukhalingam, Dwaraka Tirumala, Srikalahasthi, Annavaram, Arasavalli, Antarvedi, Ryali, Undavalli.

BASARA

Basara is situated in Adilabad district. It is famous for Saraswathi Temple located on the bank of the river Godavari. This is one among the three Saraswathi Temples in India. Other two are located at Kashmir and Sringeri.

DHARMAPURI

It is placed in Karimnagar district. It is famous for the temple of Lakshmi Narasimha Swami, located at the banks of the river Godavari.

KALESWARAM

It is situated in Karimnagar district. It is also called as DAKSHINA KASI. It has the history of two thousand years.

VEMULAWADA

It is situated in Karimnagar district. It is known for the temple of Sri Raja Rajeswara Swami. Vemulawada Bhimakavi, who is contemporary to Nannaya, belongs to this place.

NANGNURU

It is a village in Karimnagar district. There is a belief among the people that, the Eastern Chalukya king Raja Raja Narendra constructed 400 temples here.That is why this place is called on Nangnuru. At present there are only some black marble temples with extra ordinary architecture. One Silastupa was discovered here during excavations conducted here. On this stupa, we find Telugu and Kannada languages.

HANUMAKONDA

Kakatiya ruler Prataparudra constructed a thousand pillared temple here. This temple was dedicated to Lord Siva, Vishnu and Sun. But there are no idols in the temple. This temple stands as an example for the architectured skill of Kakatiyas. During the early period of Kakatiyas, it was their capital.

RAMAPPA TEMPLE

This is a Lord Siva temple, located at the village Palampeta, which is 50 Kms away from the Warangal in Warangal district. The pieces of architecture of this place was described as the poems on the stone. This temple was constructed by Recharla Rudra.

BODHAN

It is located in Nizamabad district. Here there are two mosques built by Aurangazeb.

YADAGIRIGUTTA

It is located in Nalagonda district. It is nearly 50 Kms away from Hyderabad. It is famous for the temple of Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy

BUGGA RAMESWARAM

It is 40 Kms away from Hyderabad. It is famous for Prana Lingam. The Lingam which was installed here is very big one. Even tallest persons cannot embrace the Lingam and joined their hands.

BHADRACHALAM

It is located in Khammam district. Here there is a very famous temple of Lord Sri Rama. This temple is situated on the banks of river Godavari. One devotee of Sri Rama by name Kancherla Gopanna wrote several kirtanas about this God. These kirtanas were scribed on rock plates.

MEDAK CHURCH

It is famous for its architecture. The construction of this church was started in 1914 and it was completed in the year 1924.

CHARMINAR

It was constructed by Mahammud Quli Qutub Shah in memory of the suppression of the plague quickly and successfully.

MACCA MOSQUE

It is one among the biggest mosques in South India. In a single sitting, 1000 members can offer their prayer here.

PANCHARAMAS

A single Lingam was divided into 5 and installed in 5 Aramas. These 5 Aramas are
  • Draksharammam: It is located at Draksharammam of East Godavari district.
  • Komararamam: It is located at Samarlakota of East Godavari district.
  • Somaramam: It is located at Gunupudi (Bhimavaram) of West Godavari district.
  • Kshira Ramam: It is located at Palakollu of West Godavari district.
  • Amara Ramam: It is located at Amaravathi of Guntur district. This is also called as Amareswaram Temple. This 32 Kms away from Guntur. Amaravathi is famous for the Buddhist architecture.

KOTAPPAKONDA

It is located in Guntur district. The famous Trikoteswara Swamy Temple is there on the top of the hill. A great fair will be organized on the day of SIVARATHIRI every year.

MANGALAGIRI

It is located in Guntur district. The presiding deity on this place is famous as Panakala Narasimha Swamy.

CHEJERLA

It is located near Narsaraopet of Guntur district. There is an ancient temple called Kapoteswara Swamy Temple.

NAGARJUNA KONDA

It is located in Guntur district. This was a famous Buddhist Centre. This was the capital of Ikhavakus. The remains of Buddhist Stupas are found here. The famous archeological museum is there in the nighty of Krishna River.

SRISAILAM

It is situated on the bank of river Krishna. This place located on the Rishabha giri hill. The Lord Siva Temple of this place is very ancient. It was mentioned in Mahabharata as well as in Puranas.  People says that the God Siva and the goddess Parvathi came to the earth in the forms of Mallikarjuna and Bhramarambika. The Krishna river in Srisailam is called as patelaganga. Sri Krishna Deva Raya constructed many Pavillions here.

LEPAKSHI

This is a small village, situated in Hindupur taluque of Anantapur district. There is a famous Siva temple which was constructed with Vijayanagar architecture in 16th Century. This place is famous for its Nandi statue.

PUTTAPARTHI

It is located near Dharmavaram of Anantapur district. There is world famous prasanti. Nilayam of Sri Satya Sai Baba. The devotees of Sri Satya Sai Baba visit this place from all parts of the world.

AHOBILAM

This place is located in Kurnool district. It is famous for the temple of Sri Lakshmi Nara Simha Swami. Here, there are Nava Narasimha Kshetras. This is one among the two schools of Sri Vaishnava tradition.

MAHANANDI

It is located near Srisailam. Here, the water is flowing always from the mouth of nandi idol.

MANTRALAYAM

It is situated on the bank of the river Tungabhadra in Kurnool district. This is the place where Sri Raghavendra Swami attained Sajiva Samadhi.

UPAMAKA

It is located in Visakhapatnam district. It was mentioned in the puranas also. It is famous for the temple of Sri Venkateswara.

MUKHALINGAM

It is situated on the bank of Vamsadhara, 50 Kms away from Srikakulam. It is famous for the temples of Mukhalingeswara Swami, Bhimeswara Swami and Someswara Swami. The people says that the Goddess Durga came to the earth for the protection Bhuvaraha murthy to protect the KSHETRA MAHIMA. Here, there is a beautiful architecture.

TIRUPATHI

This place is famous not only in the state but also in the entire India. There is famous temple of Sri Venkateswara. This temple situated at Tirumala at the height of 2800 feet from the sea level. The statue of Sri Krishna Deva Raya was installed here in his life time only. The Tower and Dhvajastambham of the temple are very big in size. According to the specifications of Ramanuja the Puja and Archanas are conducting even to this day.

DWARAKA TIRUMALA

It is located in West Godavari district. It is famous for the temple of Sri Venkateswara.

SRIKALAHASTI

It is situated on the bank of the river of Swarnamukhi river in Chittoor district. According to the stalapuranam, among the Panchabhutalingas this is one of that and is called as Vayulingam.

ANNAVARAM

It is famous for the temple of Satyanarayana Swami. The devotees who came here, will perform Satyanarayana Vratas.

ARASAVALLI

It is located in Srikakulam district. It is famous with the Suryanarayana Swami temple. In addition to this there are only two Surya temples in India.

ANTARVEDI

It is located in East Godavari district. It is famous for the temple of Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swami.

RYALI

It is in East Godavari district. The famous Jaganmohini Chennakesava Swami is located here. The idol of this temple appear in two forms. It will appear as Chennakesava Swami from the front side and as Jaganmohini from the back side.

UNDAVALLI

This village situated in Guntur district, 5 Kms away from Vijayawada. There is a four storied Buddhist cave temple in this village. In the second there is a sanctum sanatorium with 16 Mandapas. In that sanctum sanatorium, the idol of Narasimha Swami was installed. In the third floor, there is a idol Ananta Padma Nabha Swami. The length of this idol is 17 feet.

The Role of Andhra Mahasabha in Hyderabad, Andhra Jana Sangham Regular conferences details

DETAILS OF ANDHRA MAHASABHA IN HYDERABAD

The Andhra Mahasabha, formed in 1930 pushed for the social and cultural development of the people of Telangana. Previously it is called as Andhra Jana Sangham. In the 1930 conference, the Andhra Jana Sangham had converted into Andhra Mahasabha.

S.No
PLACE PRESIDENT YEAR
1JogipetaSuravaram Pratap Reddy1930
2DevarakondaBurgula Ramakrishna Rao1931
3KhammamPulijala Venkata Ranga Rao1934
4Sircilla (or) SirsillaMadapati Hanumanta Rao1935
5ShadnagarKonda Venkata Ranga Reddy1936
6NizamabadMundumula Narsinga Rao1937
7MalkapurMundumula Ramachandra Rao1940
8ChilukurRavi Narayana Reddy1941
9DharmavaramMadiraju Ramakoteswar Rao1942
10HyderabadKonda Venkata Ranga Reddy1943
11BhuvanagiriRavi Narayana Reddy1944
12KhammamRavi Narayana Reddy1945
13KandiSardar Jamalapuram Kesava Rao1946

The Following are the short points of Andhra Mahasabha
  • The 1st Conference was held in 1930 at Jogipeta in Medak district under the Presidency of Suravaram Pratap Reddy. 
  • The 2nd Conference was held in 1931 at Devarakonda in Nalagonda district under the Presidency of Burgula Ramakrishna Rao. 
  • The 3rd Conference was held in 1934 at Khammam district under the Presidency of Pulijala Venkata Ranga Rao. 
  • The 4th Conference was held in 1935 at Sirsilla in Karimnagar district under the Presidency of Madapati Hanumanta Rao. 
  • The 5th Conference was held in 1936 at Shadnagar in Mahaboobnagar district under the Presidency of Konda Venkata Ranga Reddy. 
  • The 6th Conference was held in 1937 at Nizamabad district under the Presidency of Mundumula Narsinga Rao. 
  • The 7th Conference was held in 1940 at Malkapur in Nalgonda district under the Presidency of Mundumula Ramachandra Rao. 
  • The 8th Conference was held in 1941 at Chilukur in Nalgonda district under the Presidency of Ravi Narayana Reddy. 
  • The 9th Conference was held in 1942 at Dharmavaram in Warangal district under the Presidency of Madiraju Ramakoteswar Rao. 
  • The 10th Conference was held in 1943 at Hyderabad under the Presidency of Konda Venkata Ranga Reddy. 
  • The 11th Conference was held in 1944 at Bhuvanagiri under the Presidency of Ravi Narayana Reddy. 
  • The 12th Conference was held in 1945 at Khammam district under the Presidency of Ravi Narayana Reddy. 
  • The 13th Conference was held in 1946 at Kandi in Medak district under the Presidency of Sardar Jamalapuram Kesava Rao.

April 01, 2015

Soil resources in Andhra Pradesh, Characteristics, Region and Types of Soils

SOILS IN INDIA, ANDHRA PRADESH

Soils are formed by the combination of weathered rock materials with humus. Soil is an important resource to an agricultural country like India. Soils form from the basis of human needs like food, clothing, etc. The prosperity of a country depends generally on the soils of that country.

There following are the soil types in Andhra Pradesh. They are Red Soils, Black Cotton Soils, Alluvial Soils and Laterite Soils.

RED SOILS

Red soils spread over a larger area of the state. They are light and have water retaining capacity. They are very less fertile. Red soils are found in Telangana and Rayalaseema, a large area of Nellore and Visakhapatnam districts, and parts of East Godavari, West Godavari, Krishna, Guntur and Prakasam districts. Uplands crops like groundnut, horse gram etc., are grown in these soils. In the areas where irrigation facilities are available Cotton, Tobacco and various varieties of fruits are also grown in Red soils.

BLACK COTTON SOILS

These soils can absorb and retain water for longer duration. Black cotton soils are found in the Godavari valley from Adilabad district to Khammam district, Mahaboobnagar, Nizamabad, Medak, Nalagonda, Ranga Reddy districts, Rayalaseema districts and parts of West Godavari, Krishna and Guntur districts. Cotton is the chief crop grown these soils. Crops like Jowar, Bajra, Korra, Tobaco, Tumeric, Chillies, Sugar-can, Paddy, Plantain etc., are also grown in the irrigated areas.

ALLUVIAL SOILS

Alluvial soils are formed with sand and Alluvium brought by river. These soils are spread over the deltas of Krishna, Godavari and Penna. These are very fertile soils. Paddy, Sugar-cane, Plantain, Guava, Lemon and Oranges are grown in these soils.

LATERITE SOILS

These soils are found in Zaheerabad area of Medak districts and in parts of Nellore, Visakhapatnam and Srikakulam districts. These soils are less fertile. Mango, Cashew and Tamarind trees are mainly grown in laterite soils. Turmeric and Potatoes are also grown.

In addition to the above soils, Sandy soils are found along the coastal areas of the state. Casuarina and Cashew groves are extensively grown in these sandy soils.

A brief details about Soils in India

S.No
TYPE OF SOIL
REGION
CHARACTERISTICS
CROPS GROWN
1 Red soil
a) Formed by Weathering of crystalline and metamorphic rocks.
b) Mixture of clay and sand.
Large parts of T.N, Karnataka, North East Andhra, M.P & Orissa.
a) Red in color because of its high Iron-oxide (FeO) content.
b) Deficient in Nitrogen, Lime, Phosphoric acid and humus.
c) Rich in Potash.
Wheat, Rice, Millet, Pulses (needs fertilizer and irrigation).
2 Black Cotton Soil (or) Regur Soil
a) Is of volcanic origin
b) Lava soil due to disintegration of basalt, formed in the area where it has formed.
c) It is also classified as Cheen ozem
Occurs mainly in Deccan trap covering large areas in Maharashtra, Gujarat, M.P, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh & Tamil Nadu.
a) Deep, fine grained
b) Varying in colour from black to chestnut brown.
c) Rich in Iron, Potash, Lime, Calcium, Alumina, Carbonates & Humus.
d) Moisture retentive, very sticky when wet.
e) Forms deep cracks when dry.
Cotton, Jowar, Wheat, Sugarcane, Linseed, Gram, Fruit & vegetable.
3 Red Soil
a) Formed by weathering of crystalline and metamorphic rocks.
b) Mixture of clay and sand.
Large parts of T.N. Karnataka, North East Andhra, M.P & Orissa.
a) Red in colour because of its high Iron-Oxide (FeO) content.
b) Deficient in nitrogen, lime, phosphoric acid and humus.
c) Rich in Potash.
Wheat, Rice, Millets, Pulses, (needs fertilizer and irrigation)
4 Laterite Soil
Formed due to weathering of lateritic rocks in low temperatures and heavy rainfall with alternating dry & wet period.
Karnataka, Summits of the Western and Eastern Ghats Malwa Plateau, Goa & Kerala.
a) Red in colour because of its high Iron-Oxide (FeO) content.
b) Poor in Nitrogen & Lime, rich in Iron.
c) High content of acidity and inability of retain moisture.
Unsuitable for agriculture due to high content of acidity and inability to retain moisture. Cashew and tropical grow well on it.
5 Arid & Desert Soil
NW India. Covers entire area west of the Aravalis in Rajasthan & parts of Haryana, Punjab & Gujarat.
Rich in Phosphates but poor in Nitrogen.
Fertile if irrigated. e.g: Ganga Nagar area of Rajasthan (Wheat basket of Rajasthan).
6 Saline & Alkaline Soil
It is also called as Reh, Kallar or usar
Arid and Semi-Arid areas of Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
a) Soils have effervescence of Sodium, Magnesium, Calcium.
b) Salinity is usually confined to the upper layers and the soil can be reclaimed by improving drainage.
c) Alkalinity is removed by application of Gypsum.
Infertile, requires Soil-reclamation.
7 Forest Soil
In forest and hilly areas.
Himalayan Range, Southern hills of Peninsula.
Rich in organic matter.
a) In some places it shows sign of Podzolisation.
b) Deficient in Potash, Phosphorus & Lime.
c) Needs continued use of fertilizers for good yields.
Plantation Crops like tea, coffee, spices and tropical fruits.
8 Peaty and other Organic Soil
Peaty Soil - Found in Kottayam and Alleppey district of Kerala.
Marshy Soil - Coastal areas of Orissa, W.B, T.N, North Bihar & Almora (U.P).
a) High accumulation or Organic matter & small amount of soluble salts.
b) Deficient in Phosphorus & Potash.
Not conductive to cultivation.

March 22, 2015

Andhra Pradesh Forests, Region wise, District wise forests in Andhra Pradesh

FORESTS IN ANDHRA PRADESH

According to the estimates of National Remote Sensing Agency (N.R.S.A) there is a forest area of 40,435 Square Kilometers in our state. This constitutes 14.61 % of total area of state. As per the National Policy, forests should constitute 33.3% of the total geographical area. Our state stands 15th place in India in respect of the area occupied by forests. In Andhra Pradesh, forests occupy mountainous areas to a large extent. Forests are confined to Seshachalam hills, Palakondalu and Nallamala hills from Tirupathi in the South to Simhachalam in the North, and in the West they extend upto Balaghat mountains. Nallamala forests are the biggest forests in Andhra Pradesh. The hills and their surrounding areas in Telangana region are covered with thick forests.

Region wise of the total forest area in Andhra Pradesh, Coastal Andhra constitutes 30.67%, Rayalaseema 23.53% and Telangana 45.80%. District wise the highest forest area is found in Khammam and the lowest in Krishna district. Forests are also found mostly in Adilabad, Cuddapah, Chittoor, Warangal, East Godavari, Visakhapatnam, Kurnool and Karimnagar Districts.

Types of Forests

Distribution of forest chiefly depends on the rainfall distribution. Forests in Andhra Pradesh mainly come under deciduous type of forests. This type of forest grows in the areas where rainfall ranges from 75 Cms. to 200 Cms. In areas with less than 75 Cms. of rainfall, forests with short thorny trees exist. This type of forest is called Scrub Forest. There are tidal forests also along the seacoasts. The chief varieties of trees that are grown in the forests of our state are Hardvickia, Agisa, Adina, Jittegi, Gallnut, Manilkara, Billu, Teak, Velama, Somania, Saman, Margosa, Butea, Redsanders, Tamba, Bamboo etc., The important varieties grown in scrub forests are Acacia, Sundra, Bhir, Canthium, etc.,

Forest Produce

Timber, Fire-wood, Bamboo, Beedi, Leaves, Tamarind, Soap nuts, Lac, Honey medicinal herbs, Tanning material (cassia), Terminalia and a variety of fruits and roots are available in forests.

Russa grass which grows in the forests of Nizamabad is used in the manufacture of scented oils. Bassia flowers and Beedi leaves are available in the forest of Telangana region (State). The Red Sanders grows nowhere in India except in the forest of Cuddapah, Chittoor and Nellore districts of Andhra Pradesh. The wood of the red sanders, which is used in the manufacture of paints, musical instruments and toys, is exported to other countries. The most valuable sand wood trees are grown in the forests of Chittoor and Anantapur districts.

Wild Animals

In the forests of Andhra Pradesh, there are many animals like varieties of insects and flies, birds, snakes, stags, porcupines, bison's, deer, tigers, leopards, sambar deers, cheetahs, antelopes, mongooses, foxes, bears, monkeys, etc.,

March 21, 2015

The books of Indian writers and their names list, Books by Indian Authors

Books by Indian Authors

Indian has produced several great writers who have influenced a whole generation and continue to inspire the coming generations by their writings.
S.No
Books
Authors
Belongs to (DOB-DOD)
1Maha BharatamNannaya, Tikkana, Errana10th Century, 1205-1288, 14th Century
2Kumara SambhavamNanne Choda12th Century
3Vrishadhipa SatakamPalkurki Somanatha12th (or) 13th Century
4Basava PuranamPalkurki Somanatha12th (or) 13th Century
5Panditaradhya CharitraPalkurki Somanatha12th (or) 13th Century
6Pratapa RudriyamVaidyanatha14th (or) 15th Century
7Madhura VijayamGanga Devi14th Century
8Jaina BharatamSalvudu
9Palnati Veera CharitraSrinadha15th Century
10Hara VilasamSrinadha15th Century
11Srinagara NaishadhaSrinadha15th Century
12Bhima KhandamSrinadha15th Century
13Nirvachanottara RamayanamTikkana1205-1288
14Andhra Bhasha BhushanamKethana
15Siva Katha SaaramMallikarjuna Panditulu
16HarivamsamErrana14th Century
17Narasimha PuranamErrana14th Century
18RamayanamMolla1440-1530
19ManucharitraAllasani Peddana15th and 16th Centuries
20ParijataapaharanamNandi Timmana15th and 16th Centuries
21Vasu CharitraRamaraja BhushanaMid 16th Century
22Kalapurnodayam Prabhavathi PradyumnamPingali Suranna16th Century
23Panduranga MahatyamTenali Ramakrishna (Garalapati Ramakrishna)16th Century
24AmuktamalyadaSri Krishna Devaraya1509-1529
25Madalasa CharitraSri Krishna Devaraya1509-1529
26Maha BhagavatamBammera Potana1450-1510
27Virabhadra VijayamBammera Potana1450-1510
28Bhogini DandakamBammera Potana1450-1510
29Kalahasthiswara MahatyamDhurjati15th and 16th Centuries
30Yayati CharitraPonneganti Telaganarya
31Tapati SamvaranopakhyanamGangadharakavi
32Dasaradhi SatakamKancherla Gopanna1620-1680
33Rajasekhara CharitraKandukuri Veeresalingam1848-1919
34Sakuntala ParinayamPillalamarri Pina Veerabhadrudu
35Jaimini BharatamPillalamarri Pina Veerabhadrudu
36Varadambika ParinayamTirumalamba1335-1565 AD
37Sumathi SatakamBaddena1220-1280
38Kaatantra VyakaranamSarva Varma
39Nritya RatnavaliJayapa Senani
40Buddha CharitraTirupathi Venkata Kavulu (Divakarla Tirupati Sastry, Chellapilla Venkata Sastry)1872-1919, 1870-1950
41Ranganadha RamayanamGona Buddha Reddy
42Bhaskara RamayanamHulakki Bhasarudu
43Vikramarka charitaJakkana15th Century
44Bhojarajiyam-chhando darpanamAnantamatyudu1430 AD
45HarischandropakhyanamGauranna
46RamabhyudayamAyyalaraju Ramabhadrudu16th Century
47Vemana SatakamVemana~ 15th, 16th, 17th Centuries (1652)
48Vijaya VilasamChemakuri Venkata Kavi17th Century
49Sarangadhra CharitraChemakuri Venkata Kavi17th Century
50Radhika SwantvanamMuddu Palani~1750's
51Subhadra KalyanamTallapaka Timmakka15th Century
52Sugriva VijayamKandukuri Rudra Kavi
53Shatchakravarti CharitramMallareddy
54Mutyala SaraluGurazada Apparao1862-1915
55Kanya SulkamGurazada Apparao1862-1915
56PurnammaGurazada Apparao1862-1915
57Desa BhaktiGurazada Apparao1862-1915
58AndhravaliRayaprolo Subba Rao1892-1984
59TrinakankanamRayaprolo Subba Rao1892-1984
60LalitaRayaprolo Subba Rao1892-1984
61GabilamGurram Jashuva1895-1971
62KinnerasaniViswanatha Satyanarayana1895-1976
63EkaviraViswanatha Satyanarayana1895-1976
64Ramayana KalpavrikshamViswanatha Satyanarayana1895-1976
65Veyi PadagaluViswanatha Satyanarayana1895-1976
66Cheliyali KattaViswanatha Satyanarayana1895-1976
67JebudongaViswanatha Satyanarayana1895-1976
68Krishna PakshamDevulapalli Krishan Sastri1897-1980
69UrvasiDevulapalli Krishan Sastri1897-1980
70PravasamDevulapalli Krishan Sastri1897-1980
71Sivaji CharitraKomaraju Lakshmana Rao1877-1923
72PrabhavaSri Sri1910-1983
73Maha PrasthanamSri Sri1910-1983
74Maro PrasthanamSri Sri1910-1983
75TwamevahamArudra1925-1998
76Siva BharatamGadiyaram Venkat Sesha Sastri1894
77Rana Pratapa Simha CharitraRajasekhara Satavadhani
78Andhrula Sanghika CharitraSuravaram Pratapa Reddy1896-1953
79Pandita Raja PanchamrutamBurgula Ramakrishna Rao
80Krishna SatakamBurgula Ramakrishna Rao
81Telanganalo AndhrodyamMadapati Hanumanta Rao1885-1970
82Vira TelanganaRavi Narayana Reddy1908-1991
83SivatandavamPuttaparti Narayana Charyulu1914-1990
84VisvambharaDr. C Narayana Reddy1931
85Mantalo ManavuduDr. C Narayana Reddy1931
86Divvela MuvvaluDr. C Narayana Reddy1931
87RamappaDr. C Narayana Reddy1931
88Karpura Vasanta RayaluDr. C Narayana Reddy1931
89Nagarjuna SagaramDr. C Narayana Reddy1931
90Ajanta SundariDr. C Narayana Reddy1931
91AgnidharaDasaradhi1925-1987
92RudraveenaDasaradhi1925-1987
93Agni VeenaAnisetti1922-1979
94Bhuvana GhoshaK V Ramana Reddy
95VajrayudhamSoma Sundar1931
96EnkipataluNanduri Subba Rao1895-1957
97KrishivaluduDuvvuri Rami Reddy1895-1947
98ParasalaDuvvuri Rami Reddy1895-1947
99Palanati BharatamEtukuri Venkata Narasayya
100Vishadha SarangadharaDharmavaram Krishnamacharya
101HemalathaChilakamarthi Lakshmi Narasimham1867-1946
102GayopakhyanamChilakamarthi Lakshmi Narasimham1867-1946
103Prasanna YadavamChilakamarthi Lakshmi Narasimham1867-1946
104Pandavodyoga VijayaluTirupathi Venkata Kavulu (Divakarla Tirupati Sastry, Chellapilla Venkata Sastry)1872-1919, 1870-1950
105Paduka Pattabhi Shekam - SakshiPanuganti Lakshmi Narasimha Rao1865-1940
106PrataparudriyamVedam Venkataraya Sastri1853-1929
107Mala PalliUnnava Lakshmi Narayana1877-1958
108VarakatnamMunimanikyam Narasimha Rao1898-1973
109Katnam KathaluMunimanikyam Narasimha Rao1898-1973
110GalivanaPalagummi Padmaraju1915-1983
111Kumpatilo KusumamMadhurantakam Rajaram1930-1999
112Chivaraku MigilediButchi Babu1916-1967
113Adavigachina VennalaButchi Babu1916-1967
114Asamarthuni JivayatraGopi Chand1910-1962
115Rattalu - RambabuRachakonda Viswanadha Sastri1922-1993
116SavitriChalam1894-1979
117SthriChalam1894-1979
118MaidanamChalam1894-1979
119Killu BommalauG V Krishna Rao
120Maa BhumiSunkara Satyanarayana
121Congress CharitraBhogaraju Pattabhi Sita Ramayya1880-1959

March 20, 2015

Floods and Droughts in Andhra Pradesh, Regions affected by floods in Andhra Pradesh

FLOODS AND DROUGHTS

FLOODS

When more rainfall occurs than the optimum rainfall, it is called over-rainfall. Rivers may be flooded due to over-rainfall. Rainfall below the optimum level is referred to under-rainfall. Under-rainfall, some times leads to drought. Drought is otherwise known as famine.

In Andhra Pradesh large and small rivers, streams, stream-lets, and tanks experience floods and surrounding areas inundate due to over-rainfall caused by monsoons, cyclones and depressions. Coastal areas are frequently affected by over-rainfall.

The following regions are frequently affected by floods in Andhra Pradesh:
The deltaic areas of the Krishna and Godavari rivers, Kolleru lake area, Vamsadhara and Sarada river basins, Budameru, Tammileru and basins of some of the rivers and streams of Chittoor and Nellore districts.

Low lying areas are inundated by floods. Agricultural lands and crops are damaged. Villages and towns may be drowned. Roads and railways, power and telephone lines may be interrupted. Heavy losses of wealth and human lives are caused. Crops are damaged not only in low-lying areas but also in upland areas where floods occur to some stream-lets in upland areas. The Government is taking all necessary steps to protect agricultural lands, villages and towns from the danger of floods.

DROUGHTS

Lack of rain in the prime reason for drought. In Andhra Pradesh drought occurs frequently in Rayalaseema. where rainfall is merge. In Andhra Pradesh, the Government declared the following areas in 11 districts as drought areas:
  1. Anantapur, Tadipatri, Dharmavaram, Kalyanadurgam, Penukonda, Madakasira, Hindupur, Kadiri, Gooty and Uravakonda areas of Anantapur district.
  2. Chittoor, Chandragiri, Madanapalle, Vayala-padu, Punganuru, Palamaneru, Kuppam, Punur and Satyaveedu areas of Chittoor district.
  3. Cuddapah, Kamalapuram, Rayachoti, Rajampet, Badwel, Jammalamadugu, Prodhutur and Pulivendula areas of Cuddapah district.
  4. Kurnool, Dronachalam, Nandikotkur, Adoni, Alur, Pattikonda, Koilkuntla, Banaganapalle, Allagadda, Atmakur and Nandyala areas of Kurnool district.
  5. Ongole, Darsi, Podili, Kanigiri, Kandukur, Giddalur, Markapuram and Addanki areas of Prakasam district.
  6. Udayagiri, Atmakur, and Kavali areas of Nellore district.
  7. Sattenapalli, Vinukonda and Palnad areas of Guntur district.
  8. Kalwakurthy, Nagarkurnool, Vanaparthi, Makthal, Shadnagar, Alampur, Achampet, Kollapur, Gudwal and Atmakur areas of Mahaboobnagar district.
  9. Suryapet, Bhuvanagiri, Miryalaguda, Huzurnagar, Ramannapet, Devarakonda and Nalgonda areas of Nalgonda district.
  10. Janagam area of Warangal district.
  11. Narayankhed area of Medak district.

March 17, 2015

Climatic Conditions of Andhra Pradesh, Monsoons based climate of Andhra Pradesh

CLIMATE CONDITIONS OF ANDHRA PRADESH

Andhra Pradesh is situated in tropical zone from the point of view of its latitudinal location. The climate of our state depends on monsoons. So, the climate of Andhra Pradesh is called Tropical Monsoon type of climate. In Andhra Pradesh, an year can be divided into four (4) seasons. They are
  • Winter Season - January to February
  • Summer Season - March to Mid June
  • Rainy Season - Mid June to September and (South-west monsoon)
  • North-east monsoon season (October to December)
Winter Season

Weather becomes cold from December and continues to be cold till the end of February. The districts of Anantapur, Chittoor, Hyderabad and Nizamabad are cooler than other districts. It is relatively cooler in plateau regions of Rayalaseema and Telangana, when compared to the coastal region. Snow fall occurs during nights.

Summer Season

Summer season generally extends from March to the first week of June. Temperature gradually increases from March and the highest temperature is recorded all over the state in the third week of May. The average temperature in summer is 27.1 degrees centigrade. Highest average temperature of 34.5 degrees centigrade is recorded in Ramagundam. Heat waves blow all over the state in the second and third weeks of May. But Chittoor and Anantapur districts which are adjacent to Mysore plateau are cooler than other regions. Horsely Hills in Chittoor district act as summer resorts. The weather at Hyderabad in summer is cooler as it is situated at a higher elevation. A difference in climate is found between coastal and plateau regions. Though it is extremely hot during day time in Rayalaseema and Telangana, it pleasantly cools down during nights. Coastal areas experience moderate temperatures due to the nearness of the sea.

Rainy Season (South-west Monsoon)

In Andhra Pradesh rainy season commences with the arrival of South-west monsoons in the second week of June and they spread allover the state by the end of June. About 800 mm of rainfall in Northern region and 400 mm in Southern region of Andhra Pradesh occur during South-west monsoon region. When compared to other regions, Telangana receives the highest amount of rainfall.

North-east Monsoon Season

South-west monsoon will start retreating in the month of October and at the same time North-east monsoon sets in North-east monsoon also gives rainfall. Southern parts of Andhra Pradesh receive more rainfall than Northern parts. Depressions are formed over the Bay of Bengal during this season and South coastal districts receive more rain. Generally South coastal districts incur heavy losses whenever these cyclones lash the coast.

March 13, 2015

Rivers of Andhra Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh Rivers Godavari, Krishna, Tungabhadra, Penna and Manjeera

RIVERS OF ANDHRA PRADESH

There are many rivers in Andhra Pradesh. As the land is high in North-West and slopes towards South-East, all the rivers flow Eastwards and join Bay of Bengal. All the rivers are rain-fed. The important rivers in Andhra Pradesh are 
  • Godavari
  • Krishna
  • Tungabhadra
  • Penna
  • Manjeera.
GODAVARI RIVER

The river Godavari is the longest among all the rivers of South India. This river, which is 1584 Kilometers long originates in Western Ghats at Triyambak near Nasik in Maharashtra. It enters Andhra Pradesh near Basar in Adilabad District. It flows to a length of about 770 Kilometers in Andhra Pradesh. Some of the important tributaries of Godavari are Manjeera, Pranhita, Indravati, Kinnerasani, Sabari, Sileru e.t.c., An Anicut is built over this river at Dowleiswaram near Rajahmundry. At the lower reaches near Rajahmundry, Godavari divides into three major distributories called Gouthami, Vasishta and Vainateya and finally reaches Bay of Bengal after forming a delta.

KRISHNA RIVER

Originating in the Western Ghats near Mahabaleswar in Maharashtra, the river Krishna flows Eastwards and enters Andhra Pradesh at Thangadi in Mahaboobnagar District. After joining with its tributary Tungabhadra, at Sangam in Kurnool district, it flows across Srisailam, and Vijayawada and reaches Bay of Bengal near Hamsaladeevi. Its total length is 1440 Kilometers. The length of Krishna river in Andhra Pradesh is about 720 Kilometers. Prakasam Barrage was constructed on the Krishna river at Vijayawada, and a road was laid over it. At a distance of 64 Kilometers, from Vijayawada, the river Krishna divides into two distributories and again merge into one. The area in between these two distributories is called "Diviseema". Nagarjuna Sagar Dam was built across the river Krishna at Nandikonda. This Dam is one of the biggest dams in India. One more dam was constructed at Srisailam. Hydro-Electricity is also being generated from waters of the reservoirs of these dams. The important tributaries of the river Krishna are Tungabhadra, Dindi, Palem, Koyana, Varna, Panchagana, Musi, Bheema, Ghantaprabha, Munneru, etc.

TUNGABHADRA RIVER

This river is a coalition of twin tributaries of Tunga and Bhadra which originate in Varaha hills in Western Ghats in Karnataka. Tungabhadra joins Krishna river in Kurnool district. It is the longest of all tributaries of Krishna river. A dam was constructed across Tungabhadra at Hospet in Karnataka for irrigation purpose and for generation of Hydel power.

PENNA RIVER

It originates in Nandi Durga hills in Karnataka. It enters Andhra Pradesh in Anantapur district and joins Bay of Bengal at Vutukur in Nellore district after flowing through Cuddapah and Nellore districts. Jayamangali, Sagileru, Papaghni, Chitravati, Cheyyeru are the tributaries of Penna river. Somasila project was built across this river.

MANJEERA RIVER

This originates in Maharashtra in the Balaghat hills. It passes through Medak district in Andhra Pradesh and joins Godavari. It is important among the tributaries in Godavari. Nizamsagar project is constructed across this tributary.

March 08, 2015

Physical regions and rivers of Andhra Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh Rivers and Regions

PHYSICAL REGIONS OF ANDHRA PRADESH

Basing on Physical, Social and economic conditions, Andhra Pradesh can be divided into three Physical regions. They are
  1. Coastal Plains
  2. Eastern Ghats
  3. Western Plateau
Physical Regions
  • Coastal Plains
    • Coastal plain stretches from the eastern ghats to the Bay of Bengal. To a large extent this plain was formed with alluvium brought by rivers. It extends over a length of about 972 kilometers from Mahendragiri in the North to the Pulicot lake in the South. This plain is narrow in the North and South, but at the central part it bulges out to a width of about 160 kms, because of the formation of the deltas by Krishna and Godavari rivers. Deltas are very fertile as they are formed with rich alluvium.
    • There is a depression called Kolleru lake between the two deltas of Krishna and Godavari rivers. This is a fresh water lake. Its area is 250 square kilometers.
    • In between Nellore district and the State of Tamilnadu, sea water penetrated into this coastal plain and formed Pulicot lake. It extends over an area of 460 square kilometers, of which major portion is in Andhra Pradesh. This is a salt water lake. It is largest lake in Andhra Pradesh.
  • Eastern Ghats
    • Eastern Ghats exist in between coastal plain and western plateau. Eastern Ghats are a series of hills with broken hills locally. They extend over a length of about 70 Kms, in the North with a height of 1200 meters at many places. These hills are composed of Charnockites and Khondalite rocks. Araku valley in Visakhapatnam district and Papikondalu in East and West Godavari districts are important hills here.
    • The Eastern Ghats are less massive to the south of the Krishna river and they occur in two ridges. The outer ridge is composed of the Nallamala and Velikonda ranges, and inner ridge is composed of Erramala, Seshachalam and Palakonda ranges. The heights of these hill varies from 700 meters to 1105 meters. Seshachalam hills are otherwise known as Tirupathi hills. Mahendragiri is the highest peak in the Eastern Gahts.
  • Western Plateau
    • It is an ancient plateau made of rocks of Archean origin. Telangana State and Ananthapur and Kurnool districts of Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh are in this plateau. The height of the plateau ranges from 150 meters to 750 meters. There are Gondwana rocks in Godavari basin in the northern part of the plateau. Coal is found in the Gondwana rocks.

March 04, 2015

Andhra Pradesh Geography detailed infromation

ANDHRA PRADESH OVERALL GEOGRAPHY

The state of Andhra was formed with Kurnool as its capital on 1st Oct, 1953 as a result of the fast unto death of Sri Potti Sreeramulu. But Andhra Pradesh was formed on 1st Nov, 1956 comprising the then Andhra State and Telangana (Telugu speaking region) of the former State of Hyderabad is the capital of Andhra Pradesh. It is situated in the South-East of India. It's area is 275,068 Sq. Kms. Andhra Pradesh occupies fourth place in area among the states of India. The other big states in area in order are Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra.

Andhra Pradesh is in the Indian Peninsula. To the North of Andhra Pradesh there are States of Chattisgarh and Orissa, Tamilnadu is on the South, Maharashtra is on the North-West, Karnataka on the West and Bay of Bengal on the East. Andhra Pradesh has a long coastal line of 972 Kilometers. There are 23 Districts in Andhra Pradesh. Anantapur District is the biggest in area and Hyderabad District is the smallest.

Basing on physical, social and economical conditions, Andhra Pradesh can be divided into 3 regions. They are:
  • Coastal Andhra
  • Rayalaseema
  • Telangana
In the above stated three regions Telangana is divided as a separate State.

Coastal Andhra

There are 9 districts on coastal Andhra. They are Srikakulam, Vijayanagaram, Visakhapatnam, East Godavari, Krishna, Guntur, Prakasam and Nellore. The area of Coastal Andhra region is 92,900 square kilometers. This region has the fertile deltas of the rivers, Godavari, Krishna and Penna. A major portion of food commercial crops that are grown in Andhra Pradesh are from this region. Hence the coastal Andhra region is known as "Granary of South India". As this region is agriculturally well developed, it is equally well developed in trade and transport sectors. Hence the highest concentration of population is found in this region. There are many industries based on agricultural produce. Heavy and large scale industries like Steel plant, Caltex Oil, Refinery, Shipbuilding, Bharat Heavy Plates and vessels, Hindustan Zinc, Coromandal Fertilizers etc., are also found here.

Rayalaseema

There are 4 districts in Rayalaseema. They are Chittoor, Cuddapah, Kurnool and Anantapur. Rayalaseema region extends over an area of 67,400 square kilometers. The density of population is very scarce in this region because it is well known for droughts and famines since ancient times. Economically this region is very backward compared to the other two regions. This region comprises of rocky area and infertile soils with very little and unsuitable rainfall. Industrially also this region is very backward.

Telangana

Here we already stated as above Telangana is declared as a separate State. Telangana state comprises of 10 districts. They are Mahaboobnagar, Hyderabad, Ranga Reddy, Medak, Nizamabad, Adilabad, Karimnagar, Warangal, Khammam and Nalagonda districts. This state comprises an area of 114,800 square kilometers. Much of the population living in this region are illiterate and poor. Most of the area is covered with dry and barren land. So, upland crops are grown with the help of available tank water industrially. Telangana is well developed when compared with other two regions. Many industries are located around Hyderabad - Secunderabad. Some parts of this region are gradually developing in agricultural sector also with the introduction of different irrigation schemes.

February 14, 2015

Indian history about Post Guptan Age [550 - 750] hand notes for Group-I, Group-II and Civil services

Post - Guptan Age [550 - 750]
  • Some important kingdoms in North-India
    • Pushyabhuti - Sthaneswar
    • Maukhari - Kannauj
    • Gouda (Bengal) - Karnasuvarna (Murshidabad)
    • Kamarupa (Assam) - Prag jyotishapura (Gowhati)
    • Maitreka - Vallabhi (Ancient Buddhist University "Vallabhi" founded by Maitrekas)
  • In Deccan, Badami chalukyan kingdom was most important
  • In South, "Pallavas of Kanchi"
  • Great Harshavardhan belongs to Pushyabhuti kingdom
  • Pushyabhuti's of North India
    • Samantas in Guptan period
    • Harshavardhan came into power and the kingdom got independence [606 - 647]
Political Career
  • He conquered Kannauj (Capital), Bengal, Assam, Gujarat, Bihar, Rajastan
  • When he conquered Gujarat, the king was Pulakesin-II of Badami Chalukayans
  • Harshavardhan was defeated by Pulakesin-II and made all agreement that "Narmada" as border
  • This information was known from "Aihole" inscription, which was on the walls of Jain temple.
  • In that inscription "Sakalottara Padeshwara" refers to Harshavardhan sakala whole, Uttara-Uttara (lord of North-India)

February 03, 2015

Indian history about Guptan Age 300 - 550 A.D hand notes for Group-I, Group-II, Group-IV, Jr.Lecturers & Degree Lecturers and Civil services prelims

GUPTA AGE [300 - 550 A.D]
Two capitals
  • Pataliputra
  • Ujjain
Sources
  • Literary
  • Epigraphy [inscriptions]
  • Numismatics [coins]
Literary Sources

S.No
Scholar
Book
Content
1
Kamandaka
Nitasara
Administration
2
Vajjika
Kaumudi Mahotsava
Coronation of Chandra Gupta-I
3
Vishakadatta
Devi Chandra Guptam [Drama]
Story of Chandra Gupta-II & Queen: Dhruva Devi
4
Basa
Swapna Vasavadatta [Drama]
The dream of Vasavadatta
5
Shudraka
Mrichachakatika
Story of Brahman Charadatta who loves Vasantasena
6
Somadeva [kashmiry scholar 11th century A.D]
Kathasarit Sagara
Spread of Indian culture towards South-East Asia
  • Angkorat in kambolia, Vishnu temple [Biggest temple in world] built by Surya Varma in 12th century.
  • Kesaria Stupa is one foot taller than the Borobodur Stupa in Java (Indonesia).

Indian history about Foreign Trade hand notes

INFORMATION ABOUT FOREIGN TRADE
Natural History [72 A.D]: By Pliny, Roman
  • Roman Empire imported luxury products from India and paid 50 Crore gold coins annually.
  • In archaeological excavations thousands of gold coins were found in South-India [Kerala]
Periplus of the Erythearn sea [Greek Book]
    • Greeks called Red sea as Erythearn sea.
    • The author was sailor of Alexandria [Captain of ship]
    • 24 port cities were mentioned.
    • Important port cities
      • Baryagaza [Broch in Gujarat]
      • Tyndis [Calicat]
      • Muziris [Cochin]
      • Poduka [Pondichery]
      • Masolia [Machilipatnam]
      • Gang [Tamralipti - Ancient most post of Bengal]
    • Ancient Roman Trade
      • Arabian sea
      • Red sea
      • Mediterranean sea
      • Meeting city - Alexandria
Factors that influenced the trade
    • Discovery of Monsoons, 46 A.D.
      • Hippalus - Italian Sailor, who discovered the monsoons directions.
      • This discovery was very useful to Trade favorable monsoons - Quick and safe trade.
    • Silk route to India
      • Entire world learned seri culture  from China [13th century]
      • Even today, 70 - 80%  silk from China
      • Chinese trade with Romans was over land.
      • This land trade came to an end in 1st century, because of troubles created by Central Asia.
      • China - Tibet - Sikkim - North eastern states - Deccan Nathula]
      • Indian rulers started collecting taxes
      • Because of silk route, Sathavahanas and Northern East became more prosperous.
      • Recently, Nithula route was reopened.